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Virechana Karma is the second procedure in the sequence of Panchakarma, mainly aimed at morbid Pitta Dosha. In simple words Virechana is that procedure which expels out the Doshas through Anal passage. Virechana is mainly intended for Pitta Dosha but it eliminates also Kapha Dosha.
Purgatives eliminate excess Pitta from its site in the liver, gall bladder, and small intestine (it does not deal with the large intestine). The bitter purgatives like rhubarb, senna, or aloe also clean the liver and gall bladder decongest bile and remove obstructions to its flow. They are preferred for Pitta and liver disorders (e.g., gall stones). Because this cleansing weakens the digestive fire, it is not always recommended for Váyu Doshas. Kapha Doshas, however, benefit from this therapy, as they have excess bile, congestion, fat, or phlegm.
This is the simplest method of Panchakarma and has most easily observed effects. It is an excellent method to heal various conditions, including abdominal tumours, haemorrhoids, smallpox, patches of skin discoloration on the face, jaundice, chronic fevers, and enlarged abdomen.
Virechana karma is relatively easy and painless procedure comparative to Vamana. Virechana has less chances of complication and those can be easily managed.
It also helps constipation, old fevers, acute diarrheal, dysentery, food poisoning, kidney stones, boils, carbuncles, excess bile, or toxic blood conditions. For those who have not had Vamana (emesis), there are 3 days of snehapana, followed by 3 days of body oleation and sudation before beginning Virechana (purgation). If Virechana follows a Vamana therapy, then after the 7 days of proper diet (samsarjana), 2 days of regular meals are eaten. On the 9th day, snehapana (drinking ghee) is begun for 3 days. The following 3 days persons receives oil abhyanga and sudation for three additional days. On this 15th day (since starting samsarjana) Virechana is begun. If sudation (sweating) is contraindicated, then Virechana begins after the third day of snehapana (drinking ghee).
Virechana is not recommended for those people with recent fevers, poor digestion, bleeding diseases of a downward nature (e.g., haemorrhoids), ulcers, rectum ulcers, and diarrhoea. Nor is it recommended for those who have recently received a decoction enema, have hardened feces, suffer from TB, and are greatly lubricated. It is not used for the very young or very old, the weak, debilitated or emaciated, while pregnant, during or immediately before menstruation, or with prolapse of the stomach or uterus.