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Sign and Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
Here hyper mean extra so a condition in which the thyroid gland is extra active is termed as Hyperthyroidism. Thyrotoxicosis is a toxic condition that is caused by an excess of thyroid hormones from any cause. Thyrotoxicosis can be caused by an excessive intake of thyroid hormone or by overproduction of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
Thyroid hormones stimulate the metabolism of cells. These are produced by the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located in the lower part of the neck. The gland wraps around the windpipe and has a shape that is similar to a butterfly. The thyroid itself is regulated by another gland located in the brain, called the pituitary. In turn, the pituitary is regulated in part by thyroid hormone that is circulating in the blood (a "feedback" effect) and in part by another gland called the hypothalamus, also a part of the brain.The hypothalamus releases a hormone called thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), which sends a signal to the pituitary to release thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In turn, TSH sends a signal to the thyroid to release thyroid hormones. If over activity of any of these three glands occurs, an excessive amount of thyroid hormones can be produced, thereby resulting in hyperthyroidism.
The rate of thyroid hormone production is controlled by the pituitary gland. If there is an insufficient amount of thyroid hormone circulating in the body for normal functioning, the release of TSH is increased by the pituitary in an attempt to stimulate the thyroid to produce more thyroid hormone. In contrast, when there is an excessive amount of circulating thyroid hormone, the release of TSH is reduced as the pituitary attempts to decrease the production of thyroid hormone
Causes of Hyperthyroidism
Some common causes of hyperthyroidism include:
- Radiation to the neck,
- Medications, and
- Infectious organisms such as viruses.
- Functioning Adenoma and Toxic Multinodular Goite
- Excessive intake of thyroid hormones
- Abnormal secretion of TSH
- Thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid)
- Excessive iodine intake.
Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
Hyperthyroidism is suggested by many signs and symptoms; however, patients with mild disease usually experience no symptoms. In patients older than 70 years, the typical signs and symptoms also may be absent. In general, the symptoms become more obvious as the degree of hyperthyroidism increases. The symptoms are related to an increase in the metabolic rate of the body.
Common symptoms include:
- Excessive sweating
- Heat intolerance
- Increased bowel movements
- Tremor (usually fine shaking)
- Nervousness; agitation
- Rapid heart rate
- Weight loss
- Decreased concentration
- Irregular and scant menstrual flow
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